使应用开拓者和广告主获得价值的最大化,直到

2019-08-10 作者:小鱼儿主页高手论坛   |   浏览(54)

际域名格式如下:
域名由各国文字的特定字符集、英语字母、数字及“-”(即连字符或减号)大肆组合而成, 但开首及最终均不可能含有“-”,“-”不能够三番五次出现 。 域名中字母不分大小写。域名最长可达56个字节(包涵后缀.com、.net、.org等)。

唯独官方的文书档案里面未有认证那或多或少。

Linux 3.10 kernel bridge转载逻辑

Html5插件教程之增多浏览器放大镜效果的货品橱窗,html5橱窗

KeyMob移动端广告平台为使用开垦者和广告主提供利用交叉推广、手提式无线电话机广告优化等一站式移动营销消除方案,使利用开荒者和广告主得到价值的最大化。
一、使用方式

代码如下:
<link rel="stylesheet" href="css/smoothproducts.css">
<script type="text/javascript" src="js/jquery.min.js"></script>
<script type="text/javascript" src="js/smoothproducts.min.js"></script>

二、Html结构
代码如下:
<div class="sp-wrap">
<a href="images/1.jpg"><img src="images/1_tb.jpg" alt=""></a>
<a href="images/2.jpg"><img src="images/2_tb.jpg" alt=""></a>
</div>

你仍是可以通过使用sp-loading class增加三个图形加载时的loading提醒器容器,这些容器会在图片加载成功以后没有。

代码如下:
<div class="sp-loading"><img src="images/sp-loading.gif" alt="">
LOADING IMAGES</div>
<div class="sp-wrap">
<a href="images/1.jpg"><img src="images/1_tb.jpg" alt=""></a>
<a href="images/2.jpg"><img src="images/2_tb.jpg" alt=""></a>
</div>

假定急需在页面加载时显得内定的物品缩略图,实际不是率先张缩略图,能够在想要内定的图样的超链接上点名sp-default class。

代码如下:
<div class="sp-wrap">
<a href="images/1.jpg"><img src="images/1_tb.jpg" alt=""></a>
<a href="images/2.jpg" class="sp-default"><img src="images/2_tb.jpg" alt=""></a>
</div>

三、开首化插件
代码如下:
<script type="text/javascript">
$(window).load( function() {
$('.sp-wrap').smoothproducts();
});
</script>

KeyMob移动端广告平台为使用开采者和广告主提供利用交叉推广、手提式有线电话机广告优化等一站式移动经营发售化解方案,使应用开垦者和广告主得到价值的最大化。

KeyMob移动端广告平台为使用开垦者和广告主提供利用交叉推广、手提式有线话机广告优化...

/^[a-z]([a-z0-9]*[-_]?[a-z0-9] )*@([a-z0-9]*[-_]?[a-z0-9] ) [.][a-z]{2,3}([.][a-z]{2})?$/i;

于是乎从头测量检验:将要相配的字串不断缩水,直到缩为原本1/5的时候能够寻常相称了,所以特别分明了。

Linux 3.10 kernel bridge转载逻辑

——lvyilong316

从前分析过linux kernel 2.6.32的bridge转载逻辑,上边剖析一下linux kernel 3.10的bridge转载逻辑。那样便是CentOS 5和CentOS 7对应的内核。3.10 kernel中bridge逻辑的最大改造正是增添了vlan管理逻辑以及brdige入口函数的装置。

/内容/i 构成贰个不区分轻重缓急写的正则表明式;
^ 相配起来
$ 相配甘休
[a-z] E-Mail前缀必需是三个斯洛伐克共和国(The Slovak Republic)语字母开首

到google里一搜,终于找到了减轻方案:在php.ini中投入(随意放到哪里,我是直接放第一行的)

1. netdev_rx_handler_register

在条分缕析在此以前率先要介绍一个人命关天函数:netdev_rx_handler_register,这么些函数是2.6内核所未有的。

lnetdev_rx_handler_register

/*
* dev: 要注册接收函数的dev
* rx_handler: 要注册的接收函数
* rx_handler_data: 指向rx_handler_data使用的数据
*/
int netdev_rx_handler_register(struct net_device *dev,
rx_handler_func_t *rx_handler,
void *rx_handler_data)
{
 ASSERT_RTNL();

 if (dev->rx_handler)
   return -EBUSY;

 /* Note: rx_handler_data must be set before rx_handler */
 rcu_assign_pointer(dev->rx_handler_data, rx_handler_data);
 rcu_assign_pointer(dev->rx_handler, rx_handler);

 return 0;
}

那个函数可以给配备(net_device)注册接收函数,然后在__netif_receive_skb函数中依据接收skb的配备接口,再调用那个被登记的吸收函数。比方为网桥下的接口注册br_handle_frame函数,为bonding接口注册bond_handle_frame函数。这相对于老式的网桥管理更加灵活,有了那个机制也能够在模块中自行注册处理函数。比如3.第10中学的openvswitch(OpenvSwitch在3.10早已合入了基础)创设netdev vport的函数netdev_create。

lnetdev_create

static struct vport *netdev_create(const struct vport_parms *parms)
{
 struct vport *vport;
/....../
 err = netdev_rx_handler_register(netdev_vport->dev, netdev_frame_hook,vport);/....../
}

这一个函数在开创netdev vport时将设备的收纳函数设置为netdev_frame_hook函数,那也是总体openvswitch的入口函数,要是查看OpenvSwitch的源码能够看看当安装于2.6内核时这里是替换掉bridge的br_handle_frame_hook函数,进而由bridge逻辑步向OpenvSwitch逻辑。

([a-z0-9]*[-_]?[a-z0-9] )* 和_a_2、aaa11、_1_a_2匹配,和a1_、aaff_33a_、a__aa不包容,假使是空字符,也是非常的,*代表0个还是八个。
*表示0个或八个前边的字符.
[a-z0-9]* 相配0个或八个罗马尼亚语字母恐怕数字
[-_]? 相配0个或1“-”,因为“-”不能够一连出现
[a-z0-9] 相配1个或三个德文字母只怕数字,因为“-”不能做为结尾

pcre.backtrack_limit=-1

2. Bridge转载逻辑深入分析

还是先从netif_receive_skb函数深入分析,那几个函数算是步入协议栈的进口。

lnetif_receive_skb

int netif_receive_skb(struct sk_buff *skb)
{
 int ret;
 if (skb_defer_rx_timestamp(skb))
   return NET_RX_SUCCESS;
 rcu_read_lock();
 /*RPS逻辑处理,现在内核中使用了RPS机制, 将报文分散到各个cpu的接收队列中进行负载均衡处理*/
 #ifdef CONFIG_RPS
 if (static_key_false(&rps_needed)) {
   struct rps_dev_flow voidflow, *rflow = &voidflow;
   int cpu = get_rps_cpu(skb->dev, skb, &rflow);
   if (cpu >= 0) {
     ret = enqueue_to_backlog(skb, cpu, &rflow->last_qtail);
     rcu_read_unlock();
     return ret;
   }
 }
 #endif
 ret = __netif_receive_skb(skb);
 rcu_read_unlock();
 return ret;
}

netif_receive_skb只是对数据包进行了RPS的拍卖,然后调用__netif_receive_skb。

__netif_receive_skb并不曾任何多余的拍卖逻辑,重要调用 __netif_receive_skb_core,这几个函数才真的约等于2.6基础的netif_receive_skb。以下代码省略了和bridge毫无干系的逻辑。

l__netif_receive_skb_core

static int __netif_receive_skb_core(struct sk_buff *skb, bool pfmemalloc)
{
 struct packet_type *ptype, *pt_prev;
 rx_handler_func_t *rx_handler;
 struct net_device *orig_dev;
 struct net_device *null_or_dev;
 bool deliver_exact = false;
 int ret = NET_RX_DROP;
 __be16 type;
/*......*/
 orig_dev = skb->dev;
 skb_reset_network_header(skb);
 pt_prev = NULL;
 skb->skb_iif = skb->dev->ifindex;
/*ptype_all协议处理,tcpdump抓包就在这里*/
 list_for_each_entry_rcu(ptype, &ptype_all, list) {
   if (!ptype->dev || ptype->dev == skb->dev) {
     if (pt_prev)
       ret = deliver_skb(skb, pt_prev, orig_dev);
     pt_prev = ptype;
    }
 }
/*调用接收设备的rx_handler*/
 rx_handler = rcu_dereference(skb->dev->rx_handler);
 if (rx_handler) {
   if (pt_prev) {
     ret = deliver_skb(skb, pt_prev, orig_dev);
     pt_prev = NULL;
   }
   switch (rx_handler(&skb)) {
     case RX_HANDLER_CONSUMED:
       ret = NET_RX_SUCCESS;
       goto out;
     case RX_HANDLER_ANOTHER:
       goto another_round;
     case RX_HANDLER_EXACT:
        deliver_exact = true;
     case RX_HANDLER_PASS:
       break;
     default:
       BUG();
   }
 }
/*根据 skb->protocol传递给上层协议*/
 type = skb->protocol;
 list_for_each_entry_rcu(ptype,&ptype_base[ntohs(type) & PTYPE_HASH_MASK], list) {   if (ptype->type == type &&(ptype->dev == null_or_dev || ptype->dev == skb->dev ||ptype->dev == orig_dev)) {     if (pt_prev)
       ret = deliver_skb(skb, pt_prev, orig_dev);
   pt_prev = ptype;
   }
 }
 if (pt_prev) {
   if (unlikely(skb_orphan_frags(skb, GFP_ATOMIC)))
     goto drop;
   else
     ret = pt_prev->func(skb, skb->dev, pt_prev, orig_dev);
 } else {
drop:
   atomic_long_inc(&skb->dev->rx_dropped);
   kfree_skb(skb);
   ret = NET_RX_DROP;
}
out:
 return ret;
}

万一一个dev被加多到一个bridge(做为bridge的三个接口),的那个接口设备的rx_handler棉被服装置为br_handle_frame函数,这是在br_add_if函数中安装的,而br_add_if (net/bridge/br_if.c)是在向网桥设备上增添接口时设置的。步向br_handle_frame也就走入了bridge的逻辑代码。

lbr_add_if

int br_add_if(struct net_bridge *br, struct net_device *dev)
{
 /*......*/
 err = netdev_rx_handler_register(dev, br_handle_frame, p);
 /*......*/
}

lbr_handle_frame

rx_handler_result_t br_handle_frame(struct sk_buff **pskb)
{
 struct net_bridge_port *p;
 struct sk_buff *skb = *pskb;
 const unsigned char *dest = eth_hdr(skb)->h_dest;
 br_should_route_hook_t *rhook;
 if (unlikely(skb->pkt_type == PACKET_LOOPBACK))
   return RX_HANDLER_PASS;
 if (!is_valid_ether_addr(eth_hdr(skb)->h_source))
   goto drop;
 skb = skb_share_check(skb, GFP_ATOMIC);
 if (!skb)
   return RX_HANDLER_CONSUMED;
/*获取dev对应的bridge port*/
 p = br_port_get_rcu(skb->dev);
/*特殊目的mac地址的处理*/
 if (unlikely(is_link_local_ether_addr(dest))) {
 /*
  * See IEEE 802.1D Table 7-10 Reserved addresses
  *
  * Assignment   Value
  * Bridge Group Address 01-80-C2-00-00-00
  * (MAC Control) 802.3 01-80-C2-00-00-01
  * (Link Aggregation) 802.3 01-80-C2-00-00-02
  * 802.1X PAE address 01-80-C2-00-00-03
  *
  * 802.1AB LLDP 01-80-C2-00-00-0E
  *
  * Others reserved for future standardization
  */
   switch (dest[5]) {
     case 0x00: /* Bridge Group Address */
     /* If STP is turned off,then must forward to keep loop detection */       if (p->br->stp_enabled == BR_NO_STP)
         goto forward;
     break;
     case 0x01: /* IEEE MAC (Pause) */
       goto drop;
     default:
       /* Allow selective forwarding for most other protocols */
       if (p->br->group_fwd_mask & (1u << dest[5]))
         goto forward;
   }
   /* LOCAL_IN hook点,注意经过这个hook点并不代表发送到主机协议栈(只有特殊目的mac01-80-C2才会走到这里)*/
   if (NF_HOOK(NFPROTO_BRIDGE, NF_BR_LOCAL_IN, skb, skb->dev,
     NULL, br_handle_local_finish)) {
       return RX_HANDLER_CONSUMED; /* consumed by filter */
   } else {
     *pskb = skb;
     return RX_HANDLER_PASS; /* continue processing */
   }
 }
/*转发逻辑*/
forward:
 switch (p->state) {
   case BR_STATE_FORWARDING:
     rhook = rcu_dereference(br_should_route_hook);
     if (rhook) {
       if ((*rhook)(skb)) {
         *pskb = skb;
         return RX_HANDLER_PASS;
       }
       dest = eth_hdr(skb)->h_dest;
      }
   /* fall through */
   case BR_STATE_LEARNING:
     /*skb的目的mac和bridge的mac一样,则将skb发往本机协议栈*/
     if (ether_addr_equal(p->br->dev->dev_addr, dest))
       skb->pkt_type = PACKET_HOST;
     /*NF_BR_PRE_ROUTING hook点*/
     NF_HOOK(NFPROTO_BRIDGE, NF_BR_PRE_ROUTING, skb, skb->dev, NULL,br_handle_frame_finish);   break;
default:
drop:
 kfree_skb(skb);
}
return RX_HANDLER_CONSUMED;
}

经过NF_BR_LOCAL_IN hook点会实践br_handle_local_finish函数。

lbr_handle_local_finish

static int br_handle_local_finish(struct sk_buff *skb)
{
 struct net_bridge_port *p = br_port_get_rcu(skb->dev);
 u16 vid = 0;
/*获取skb的vlan id(3.10的bridge支持vlan)*/
 br_vlan_get_tag(skb, &vid);
/*更新bridge的mac表,注意vlan id也是参数,说明每个vlan有一个独立的mac表*/
 br_fdb_update(p->br, p, eth_hdr(skb)->h_source, vid);
 return 0; /* process further */
}

经过NF_BR_PRE_ROUTING hook点会实践br_handle_frame_finish函数。

lbr_handle_frame_finish

int br_handle_frame_finish(struct sk_buff *skb)
{
 const unsigned char *dest = eth_hdr(skb)->h_dest;
 struct net_bridge_port *p = br_port_get_rcu(skb->dev);
 struct net_bridge *br;
 struct net_bridge_fdb_entry *dst;
 struct net_bridge_mdb_entry *mdst;
 struct sk_buff *skb2;
 u16 vid = 0;
 if (!p || p->state == BR_STATE_DISABLED)
   goto drop;
   /*这个判断主要是vlan的相关检查,如是否和接收接口配置的vlan相同*/
 if (!br_allowed_ingress(p->br, nbp_get_vlan_info(p), skb, &vid))
   goto out;
 /* insert into forwarding database after filtering to avoid spoofing */
 br = p->br;
  /*更新转发数据库*/
 br_fdb_update(br, p, eth_hdr(skb)->h_source, vid);
  /*多播mac的处理*/
 if (!is_broadcast_ether_addr(dest) && is_multicast_ether_addr(dest) &&
    br_multicast_rcv(br, p, skb))
   goto drop;
 if (p->state == BR_STATE_LEARNING)
   goto drop;
 BR_INPUT_SKB_CB(skb)->brdev = br->dev;
 /* The packet skb2 goes to the local host (NULL to skip). */
 skb2 = NULL;
/*如果网桥被设置为混杂模式*/
 if (br->dev->flags & IFF_PROMISC)
   skb2 = skb;
  dst = NULL;
/*如果skb的目的mac是广播*/
 if (is_broadcast_ether_addr(dest))
   skb2 = skb;
 else if (is_multicast_ether_addr(dest)) { /*多播*/
   mdst = br_mdb_get(br, skb, vid);
 if (mdst || BR_INPUT_SKB_CB_MROUTERS_ONLY(skb)) {
   if ((mdst && mdst->mglist) ||
    br_multicast_is_router(br))
     skb2 = skb;
   br_multicast_forward(mdst, skb, skb2);
   skb = NULL;
   if (!skb2)
     goto out;
   } else
     skb2 = skb;
    br->dev->stats.multicast  ;
  } else if ((dst = __br_fdb_get(br, dest, vid)) &&dst->is_local) {/*目的地址是本机mac,则发往本机协议栈*/     skb2 = skb;
     /* Do not forward the packet since it's local. */
     skb = NULL;
  }
  if (skb) {
   if (dst) {
     dst->used = jiffies;
     br_forward(dst->dst, skb, skb2); //转发给目的接口
   } else
      br_flood_forward(br, skb, skb2); //找不到目的接口则广播
 }
 if (skb2)
    return br_pass_frame_up(skb2); //发往本机协议栈
out:
 return 0;
drop:
 kfree_skb(skb);
 goto out;
}

咱俩先看发往本机协议栈的函数br_pass_frame_up。

lbr_pass_frame_up

static int br_pass_frame_up(struct sk_buff *skb)
{
 struct net_device *indev, *brdev = BR_INPUT_SKB_CB(skb)->brdev;
 struct net_bridge *br = netdev_priv(brdev);
//更新统计计数(略)
 /* Bridge is just like any other port. Make sure the
  * packet is allowed except in promisc modue when someone
  * may be running packet capture.
  */
 if (!(brdev->flags & IFF_PROMISC) &&!br_allowed_egress(br, br_get_vlan_info(br), skb)) {   kfree_skb(skb); //如果不是混杂模式且vlan处理不合要求则丢弃
   return NET_RX_DROP;
 }
//vlan处理逻辑
 skb = br_handle_vlan(br, br_get_vlan_info(br), skb);
  if (!skb)
   return NET_RX_DROP;
  indev = skb->dev;
 skb->dev = brdev; //重点,这里修改了skb->dev为bridge
 //经过NF_BR_LOCAL_IN再次进入协议栈
 return NF_HOOK(NFPROTO_BRIDGE, NF_BR_LOCAL_IN, skb, indev, NULL,
  netif_receive_skb);
}

重新步向netif_receive_skb,由于skb-dev被设置成了bridge,而bridge设备的rx_handler函数是从未棉被服装置的,所以就不会重新步入bridge逻辑,而直白步入了主机上层协议栈。

下面看转载逻辑,转载逻辑首要在br_forward函数中,而br_forward首要调用__br_forward函数。

l__br_forward

static void __br_forward(const struct net_bridge_port *to, struct sk_buff *skb)
{
 struct net_device *indev;
 //vlan处理
 skb = br_handle_vlan(to->br, nbp_get_vlan_info(to), skb);
 if (!skb)
   return;
 indev = skb->dev;
 skb->dev = to->dev; //skb->dev设置为出口设备dev
 skb_forward_csum(skb);
 //经过NF_BR_FORWARD hook点,调用br_forward_finish
 NF_HOOK(NFPROTO_BRIDGE, NF_BR_FORWARD, skb, indev, skb->dev,
 br_forward_finish);
}

lbr_forward_finish

int br_forward_finish(struct sk_buff *skb)
{
 //经过NF_BR_POST_ROUTING hook点,调用br_dev_queue_push_xmit
 return NF_HOOK(NFPROTO_BRIDGE, NF_BR_POST_ROUTING, skb, NULL, skb->dev,br_dev_queue_push_xmit);}

lbr_dev_queue_push_xmit

int br_dev_queue_push_xmit(struct sk_buff *skb)
{
 /* ip_fragment doesn't copy the MAC header */
 if (nf_bridge_maybe_copy_header(skb) ||(packet_length(skb) > skb->dev->mtu && !skb_is_gso(skb))) {   kfree_skb(skb);
 } else {
   skb_push(skb, ETH_HLEN);
   br_drop_fake_rtable(skb);
   dev_queue_xmit(skb); //发送到链路层
 }
 return 0;
}

Skb进入dev_queue_xmit就能够调用相应设备驱动的发送函数。也就出了bridge逻辑。所以总体3.10kernel的bridge转发逻辑如下图所示:

图片 1稳重,和2.6kernel同样,bridge的OUTPUT hook点在bridge dev的出殡和埋葬函数中,这里不再深入分析列出。

3.10 kernel bridge转发逻辑 Linux 3.10 kernel bridge转载逻辑 ——lvyilong316 之前剖析过linux kernel 2.6.32的bridge转载逻辑,下边剖析一下linux kernel...

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